# The Origin of Matter and Evolution of Galaxies (OMEG) School

Asia/Ho_Chi_Minh
Room 416, T1 building, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Hanoi

#### Room 416, T1 building, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Hanoi

334 Nguyen Trai, Thanh Xuan, Hanoi
Vinh Luong
• Sunday, 23 October
• 07:40 08:00
Opening Talk 20m
Speaker: Dr Nguyen Thi Dung (VNU-HUS)
• 08:00 09:30
Introduction to Nuclear Astrophysics 1h 30m Online

#### Online

Our universe has begun about 13.7 billion years ago with Big Bang, and developed through variety of phenomena till the present, our rich world now. To learn the mechanism of the evolution of the universe as well as various phenomena requires scientific efforts from many fields. Visible matters of the universe are made of elements of about 100 species which were also produced along the evolution of the universe. Nuclear reactions produce new elements as well as anomalous energies, and play a key role in various stellar phenomena along the evolution. Nuclear physics study together with observations of elements as well as neutrinos and photons of various wave-lengths opens up a new scope to understand “our universe”.
Syllabus:
1. Nuclear phenomena and nuclear physics in the universe
2. Evolution models of the universe
3. Nuclear Burning in the Sun – Hydro-static burning
4. Heavy element synthesis

Speaker: Prof. Shigeru Kubono (University of Tokyo/RIKEN Nishina Center)
• 09:30 10:00
Coffee Break 30m
• 10:00 11:30
Astronomical Observations. 1. Stellar chemical compositions to constrain nucleosynthesis in the universe 1h 30m Online

#### Online

Chemical compositions of variety types of stars contain useful information to constrain the nucleosynthesis in the universe. The products of nuclear reactions inside stars sometimes appear at the surface of highly red giants in the very late stage of stellar evolution. On the other hand, most of stars before that, including the Sun as a main-sequence star, preserve compositions of elements provided by the previous generations of stars and supernova explosions. In this lecture, I present some examples of studies of stellar chemical compositions to constrain nucleosynthesis in stars and supernovae. The methods to determine elemental and isotopic abundances of stars are also presented.

Speaker: Prof. Wako Aoki (National Astronomical Observatory of Japan)
• 11:30 13:00
Lunch 1h 30m
• 13:00 14:30
Experimental approach to study explosive nuclear burning in the universe 1h 30m Online

#### Online

1. Explosive hydrogen burning in novae and supernovae
2. Explosive heavy element synthesis on neutron stars
Speaker: Prof. Shigeru Kubono (University of Tokyo/RIKEN Nishina Center)
• 14:30 15:00
Coffee Break 30m
• 15:00 16:30
Astronomical Observations. 2. Novae and r-process 1h 30m Online

#### Online

This lecture provides overview of recent progress in understanding of explosive nucleosynthesis of Li and heavy elements. Recent observations have revealed that nova explosions are major source of Li in the Galaxy. Observational methods and results of novae are presented. The astrophysical site of the r-process that is a major source of elements heavier than iron in the universe is a longstanding problem. The detection of gravitational wave and follow-up optical observations have identified the merger of binary neutron stars to be a site of the r-process. Spectroscopic observations of early generations of stars also give useful constraints on the nature of the r-process. Current understanding of the r-process based on observational results is reviewed.

Speaker: Prof. Wako Aoki (National Astronomical Observatory of Japan)
• Monday, 24 October
• 08:00 09:30
Theoretical approach in nuclear astrophysics I: Big-Bang cosmology 1h 30m Online

#### Online

My course lectures will cover the basics and fundamentals in nuclear astrophysics and cosmology. The ultimate goal is to explore what we are made of, why and how the universe began and evolved, and whether we are alone in the universe. For this goal I will lecture on nuclear physics in explosive nucleosynthesis in the Big-Bang universe, supernovae and neutron star mergers. In the near future, humans will surely develop their activities in space. We need to be prepared by studying how and when the atomic nuclei that make up our life were created, and what important roles they have played so far in the evolution of the universe, galaxies, and stars.

Speaker: Prof. Toshitaka Kajino (Beihang University, China)
• 09:30 10:00
Coffee Break 30m
• 10:00 11:30
The experimental methods for nuclear astrophysics 1h 30m

Experimental method developed for the study of nuclear and particle physics is a powerful tool to study the origin of matter and the evolution of the universe. In this lecture, we will give a basic idea about the operation principle of particle detectors. We will also discuss different types of nuclear reactions, their dependence on incident energies, and their application for nuclear astrophysics studies.
Syllabus:
1. Our Universe as an object for experimental study.
2. Basic concepts of particle detectors and their application in nuclear physics.
3. Spectrometers for study of nuclear radiation. Examples of gamma, X-ray and alpha spectroscopy.
4. Nuclear reaction classification. Discussion of reaction dynamics at different incident energies.
5. Acceleration of radioactive nuclei. Fragmentation reactions at higher energies for RIB production. Radioactive beams and nuclear astrophysics.
6. Early Universe and neutron star mergers in laboratories. Experimental study of nuclear matter at extreme densities and temperatures at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider.

Speaker: Prof. Yuri Panebrattsev (Joint Institute for Nuclear Research)
• 11:30 13:00
Lunch 1h 30m
• 13:00 14:30
Theoretical approach in nuclear astrophysics II: Supernovae and the origin of nuclei 1h 30m Online

#### Online

Speaker: Prof. Toshitaka Kajino (Beihang University, China)
• 14:30 15:00
Coffee Break 30m
• 15:00 17:00
Free discussion and a short lecture on hot topics 2h
• Short lecture (30 minutes): "Experimental studies of the $\beta$-decay properties for the r-process nucleosynthesis". Speaker: Dr. Vi Ho Phong, RIKEN Nishina Center.
Syllabus:
The rapid neutron capture process (r-process) occurs in a short time scale (~ms), and very neutron-rich (> $10^{23}$ neutrons/cm$^{3}$) environment such as merging neutron stars and massive supernovae explosion. In such conditions, the successive neutron capture process (n, γ) drives the nuclear matters to the very neutron-rich (exotic) region in the nuclear chart until the competing β decay process with sufficiently short half-life increases the proton number of the reaction chain by one unit. This makes a so-call r-process path, which terminates when the fission region is reached.
Experimental studies of β-decay process in neutron-rich nuclei are therefore crucial to understand the synthesis of elements heavier than iron in the galaxy.
In this short lecture, the experimental approach on measuring fundamental properties of the β decay process, such as β-decay half-lives and β-delayed neutron emission probability will be introduced.

• Free discussion